Common Japanese Words & Grammar in Translations

A

愛 – あい – ai
1. love; affection; care
2. attachment; craving; desire (Buddhist term)

あまりに – amarini
1. too much; excessively; too

穴 – あな – ana
1. hole; opening; perforation
2. pit; hollow; hole (in the ground, etc.)
3. burrow; den; lair; holt; hole
4. deficit; shortage; missing person (in a team, meeting, etc.)
5. vacancy; opening
6. flaw
7. well-kept secret place
8. upset victory (with a large payoff)
9. pit (of a theater)
10. hiding place; hideout
11. underbelly (of society, etc.)

明日 – あした – ashita
1. tomorrow
明日 – あす – asu
1. tomorrow
2. near future

会う – あう – au
1. to meet; to encounter; to see
2. to have an accident; to have a bad experience

B

僕 – ぼく – boku
1. I; me
2. you
3. manservant

無様 – ぶざま – buzama
1. unshapely; unsightly; clumsy; unpresentable; uncouth; awkward; ungainly

D

だけ – dake
1. only; just; merely; simply; no more than; nothing but; alone
2. as much as; to the extent of; enough to

誰か – だれか – dareka
1. someone; somebody

誰も – だれも – daremo
1. everyone; anyone
2. no one; nobody (with ない)

でも – demo
1. but; however; though; nevertheless; still; yet; even so; also; as well
particle
2. even
3. however; no matter how; even if; even though
4. … or something
5. either … or …; neither … nor … (~でも~でも)
prefix:
6. pseudo-; quack; in-name-only
7. for lack of anything better to do

どれくらい – dorekurai
1. how long; how far; how much

でしょうか – deshou ka
1. don’t you think?; indicates question

E

描く – えがく – egaku
1. to draw; to paint; to sketch
2. to depict; to describe (only えがく)
3. to picture in one’s mind; to imagine
4. to form a certain shape (e.g. path of an action, appearance of an object, etc.)

抉れる – えぐれる – egureru
1. to be gouged; to be hollowed; to become hollow

抉る – えぐる – eguru
1. to gouge; to hollow out; to bore; to excavate; to scoop out
2. to greatly perturb; to cause emotional pain
3. to get to the bottom of things; to relentlessly bring the truth to light

嘔吐く – えづく – ezuku
1. to vomit; to throw up; to feel nauseated; to feel sick

F


G


H

華 – はな – hana
1. flower; blossom; bloom; petal
2. cherry blossom
3. beauty
4. blooming (esp. of cherry blossoms)
5. ikebana
6. hanafuda
7. (the) best
8. glorious; lovely

はずがない – hazu ga nai
1. cannot (do); it is impossible that…; it is (highly) unlikely that…
はずもない – hazu mo nai
definitely cannot do, extremely unlikely

瞳 – ひとみ – hitomi
1. pupil (of eye)
2. eye

程 – ほど – hodo
1. degree; extent; bounds; limit
2. upper limit

ほら – hora
1. look!; look out!; hey!; look at me!; there you are!

I

生きる – いきる – ikiru
1. to live; to exist
2. to make a living; to subsist
3. to be in effect; to be in use; to function
4. to come to life; to be enlivened
5. to be safe (in baseball, go, etc.)
to be alive

良い – いい – ii
1. good; excellent; fine; nice; pleasant; agreeable
2. sufficient; enough; ready; prepared
3. profitable (deal, business offer, etc.); beneficial
4. OK; all right; fine; no problem

今 – いま – ima
1. now; the present time; just now; soon; immediately; (one) more

意味 – いみ – imi
1. meaning; significance; sense

命 – いのち – inochi
1. life; life force
2. lifetime; lifespan
3. most important thing; foundation; core
4. paired tattoos of the “life” kanji on the upper arms of a man and woman (indicating unwavering love) (archaism)
5. fate; destiny; karma

J

自分 – じぶん – jibun
1. myself; yourself; oneself; himself; herself
2. I; me
3. you (kansai dialect)
自分の: my…

自分の為 – じぶんのため – jibun no tame

K

掛ける – かける – kakeru
1. to hang up (e.g. a coat, a picture on the wall); to let hang; to suspend (from); to hoist (e.g. sail); to raise (e.g. flag) (壁にかける)
2. to put on (e.g. a blanket); to put on top of; to cover; to lay; to spread
3. to put on (glasses, etc.); to wear (a necklace, etc.) ( 電話を掛ける)
4. to make (a call) (電話を掛ける)
5. to spend (time, money); to expend; to use (時間を掛ける)
6. to pour (liquid) onto; to sprinkle (powder or spices) onto; to splash; to throw (e.g. water) onto (塩をかける)
7. to turn on (an engine, radio, etc.); to set (a dial, an alarm clock, etc.); to put on (a DVD, a song, etc.)
8. to cause (somebody inconvenience, trouble, etc.); to burden (someone); to impose (迷惑を掛ける)
9. to multiply (arithmetic operation)
10. to secure (e.g. lock) (鍵を掛ける)
11. to take a seat; to sit; to rest (something on something else); to support (something on something else) (腰を掛ける)
12. to bind
13. to wager; to bet; to risk; to stake; to gamble (賭ける)
14. to put an effect (spell, anaesthetic, etc.) on
15. to hold (a play, festival, etc.)
16. to hold an emotion for (pity, hope, etc.)
17. to argue (in court); to deliberate (in a meeting); to present (e.g. idea to a conference, etc.) (裁判に掛ける)
18. to increase further
19. to catch (in a trap, etc.)
20. to set atop
21. to erect (a makeshift building)
22. to apply (insurance) (保険を掛ける)
23. to pun (on a word); to use (a word) as a pivot word; to play on words
24. to be partway doing …; to begin (but not complete) …; to be about to … (after -masu stem, e.g 話し掛ける)
25. to address (someone); to direct (something, to someone); to do (something, to someone) (after -masu stem, e.g 話し掛ける)

かな – kana
1. I wonder
2. should I?; is it?
3. I wish that; I hope that (with ない)

感情 – かんじょう – kanjou
1. emotion; feeling; feelings; sentiment

から – kara
1. from (e.g. time, place, numerical quantity); since
2. from (originator); by
3. because; since
4. out of (constituent, part)
5. through (e.g. window, vestibule)
6. after; since

絡み付く – からみつく – karamitsuku
1. to twine around; to twist around; to coil around
2. to pester; to hassle

変わる – かわる – kawaru
1. to change; to be transformed; to be altered; to vary
2. to move to
3. to be different; to be uncommon; to be unusual

風 – かぜ – kaze
1. wind; breeze; draught; draft
2. manner; behaviour; behavior
3. cold; influenza

結末 – けつまつ – ketsumatsu
1. end; conclusion

希望 – きぼう – kibou
1. hope; wish; aspiration

君 – きみ – kimi
1. you; buddy; pal
2. monarch; ruler; sovereign; (one’s) master
Male term, used for family, friends, gf

昨日 – きのう – kinou
1. yesterday

綺麗 – きれい – kirei
1. pretty; lovely; beautiful; fair
2. clean; clear; pure; tidy; neat
3. completely; entirely (きれいに)

気付く – きづく – kizuku
1. to notice; to recognize; to recognise; to become aware of; to perceive; to realize; to reali

こぼれ落ちる – こぼれるおちる – koborer uochiru
1. to spill over and fall; to scatter (petals, leaves, etc.)

心 – こころ – kokoro
1. mind; heart; spirit
2. the meaning of a phrase (riddle, etc.)
soul

こと – koto
1. thing; matter
2. incident; occurrence; event; something serious; trouble; crisis
3. circumstances; situation; state of affairs
4. work; business; affair
5. after an inflectable word, creates a noun phrase indicating something the speaker does not feel close to
6. nominalizing suffix
7. pretending to …; playing make-believe …
8. alias; aka; nickname; alternative name; also known as

暗い – くらい – kurai
1. dark; gloomy; murky
2. depressed; dispirited; down in the dumps; dark (mood)
3. dark (in colour); dull
4. ill-boding; dark (e.g. past); suspicious
5. unlikely (to succeed); hopeless; unpromising
6. unfamiliar (with); ignorant (of)

腐る – くさる – kusaru
1. to rot; to go bad; to decay; to spoil; to fester; to decompose; to turn sour (e.g. milk)
2. to corrode; to weather; to crumble
3. to become useless; to blunt; to weaken (from lack of practice)
4. to become depraved; to be degenerate; to be morally bankrupt; to be corrupt
5. to be depressed; to be dispirited; to feel discouraged; to feel down
6. to have the audacity to; to be bastard enough to
7. to lose a bet (archaism)
8. to be drenched; to become sopping wet (archaism)

来る – くる – kuru
1. to come (spatially or temporally); to approach; to arrive
2. to come back; to do … and come back (行って来る)
3. to come to be; to become; to get; to grow; to continue
. to come from; to be caused by; to derive from
5. to come to (i.e. “when it comes to spinach …”) (…と来たら)

今日 – きょう – kyou
1. today; this day
今日 – こんにち – konnichi
2. these days; recently; nowadays

M

間違い – まちがい – machigai
1. mistake; error; blunder
2. accident; mishap; trouble
3. improper conduct (e.g. between man and woman); indiscretion

まだ – mada
1. still; as yet; hitherto; only
2. not yet (with ~ない)
3. more; besides
4. unfinished; incomplete; not yet finished with (まだな)

交わる – まじわる – majiwaru
1. to cross; to intersect; to join; to meet
2. to associate with; to mingle with; to consort with
3. to have a sexual relationship; to copulate

醜い – みにくい – minikui
1. ugly; unattractive
2. unsightly; unseemly

未来 – みらい – mirai
1. the future (usually distant)
2. future tense
3. the world to come

水 – みず – mizu
1. water (esp. cool, fresh water, e.g. drinking water)
2. fluid (esp. in an animal tissue); liquid
3. flood; floodwaters

もがく – mogaku
1. to struggle; to writhe; to wriggle; to squirm
2. to act franticly; to make desperate efforts

もう – mou
1. now; soon; shortly; before long; presently
2. already; yet; by now; (not) anymore
3. further; more; again; another; the other
4. tsk; dammit; jeez; come on; what the hell

N

流れる – ながれる – nagareru
1. to stream; to flow (liquid, time, etc.); to run (ink)
2. to be washed away; to be carried
3. to drift; to float (e.g. clouds); to wander; to stray
4. to sweep (e.g. rumour, fire); to spread; to circulate
5. to be heard (e.g. music); to be played
6. to lapse (e.g. into indolence, despair)
7. to pass; to elapse; to be transmitted
8. to be called off; to be forfeited
9. to disappear; to be removed

中 – なか – naka
1. inside; in
2. among; within
3. center (centre); middle
4. during; while
…の中 – のなか – no naka
in…, in the middle of…, inside…

泣く – なく – naku
1. to cry; to weep; to sob; to howl

何 – なに – nani
1. what
2. how many (e.g. 何か月)
3. large number of; many
4. you-know-what; that
5. whatsit; what’s the expression; what do you call them
6. what? (surprise)
7. hey! (anger)
何 – なん – nan
1. what
2. how many (e.g. 何か月)
3. large number of; many
4. you-know-what; that
5. whatsit; what’s the expression; what do you call them
6. what? (surprise)
7. hey! (anger)

伸びる – のびる – nobiru
1. to stretch; to extend; to lengthen; to grow (of hair, height, grass, etc.)
2. to straighten out; to be flattened; to become smooth
3. to spread (of paint, cream, etc.)
4. to stretch out (e.g. of a hand); to extend
5. to lose elasticity; to become slack; to become soggy (e.g. noodles)
6. to make progress; to develop; to expand; to increase; to improve
7. to be exhausted; to be groggy; to pass out; to collapse (only 伸びる)
8. to be prolonged (meeting, life span, etc.); to be extended (e.g. deadline); to lengthen (e.g. of the days) only (延びる)
9. to be postponed; to be delayed; to be put off

飲み込む – のみこむ – nomikomu
1. to gulp down; to swallow deeply
2. to understand; to take in; to catch on to; to learn; to digest
3. to engulf; to swallow up
4. to be filled with (people); to be crowded
5. to hold back from saying something; to swallow (one’s words)

の様に – のように – no you ni
1. like; similar to
2. as with; in the same way

のに – noni
1. although; despite; even though; and yet
2. whereas; while
3. if only; I wish
4. in order to

O

おいしい – oishii
1. delicious; tasty; sweet
2. attractive; appealing; convenient; favorable; desirable; profitable

奥 – おく – oku
1. inner part; inside; interior; depths (e.g. of a forest); back (of a house, drawer, etc.); bottom (e.g. of one’s heart); recesses; heart

お前 – おまえ – omae
1. you (derogatory, formerly honorific)

お前ら – おまえら – omaera
1. you (plural) (derogatory)

P

ピエロ – piero
1. clown

R


S

さ – sa
1. -ness
2. indicates assertion (sentence end, masc.)
3. come; come now

探しす – さがす – sagasu
1. to search (for something desired, needed); to look for
2. to search (for something lost); to seek (a suspect in a crime)

叫べぶ – さけぶ – sakebu
1. to shout; to cry; to scream; to shriek; to yell; to exclaim
2. to clamor (for or against); to clamour (for or against)

世界 – せかい – sekai
1. the world; society; the universe
2. sphere; circle; world
3. renowned; world-famous; well-known outside of Japan (世界の…)
4. realm governed by one Buddha; space

死骸 – しがい – shigai
1. (dead) body; corpse; carcass; remains
(usage: animals)

死体 – しんたい – shintai
1. dead body; corpse; cadaver; carcass
(usage: people)

死ぬ – しぬ – shinu
1. to die; to pass away
2. to lose spirit; to lose vigor; to look dead
3. to cease; to stop

心臓 – しんぞう – shinzou
1. heart (anatomical term)
2. guts; nerve; cheek; gall; spine
3. central part

白い – しろい – shiroi
1. white

知る – しる – shiru
1. to be aware of; to know; to be conscious of; to cognize; to cognise
2. to notice; to feel
3. to understand; to comprehend; to grasp
4. to remember; to be acquainted with (a procedure)
5. to experience; to go through; to learn
6. to be acquainted with (a person); to get to know
7. to concern

それ – sore
1. that (indicating an item or person near the listener, the action of the listener, or something on their mind); it
2. that time; then
3. there (indicating a place near the listener) (archaism)
4. you (archaism)

そう – sou
1. so; really; seeming
2. appearing that; seeming that; looking like; having the appearance of (after masu-stem or adjective)

そうだ – sou da
1. that is so; that is right; it looks to me; that’s my impression
2. people say that; it is said that; I hear that
Yeah

全て – すべて – subete
1. everything; all; the whole
2. entirely; completely; wholly; all

~すぎる – sugiru
6. to be excessive; to be too much; to be too …

T

ただ – tada
1. ordinary; common; usual
2. free of charge (only 只)
3. unaffected; as is; safe (usually ただでは…)
4. only; merely; just; simply
5. but; however; nevertheless (esp. 但)

為に – ために – tame ni
1. for; for the sake of; to one’s advantage; in favor of; in favour of; on behalf of
2. because of; as a result of
…の為 – のため – no tame
for the sake of…

手 – て – te
1. hand; arm
2. forepaw; foreleg (command お手)
3. handle
4. hand; worker; help
5. trouble; care; effort
6. means; way; trick; move; technique; workmanship
7. hand; handwriting
8. kind; type; sort
9. one’s hands; one’s possession (手に入る)
10. ability to cope (手に余る)
11. hand (of cards)
12. direction
13. move (in go, shogi, etc.)

手を取る – ておとる – te o toru
1. to take someone’s hand

〜てしまう – shimau
4. to do completely; to finish
5. to do accidentally; to do without meaning to; to happen to do

時 – とき – toki
1. time; hour; moment (刻 signifies a time of day, 秋 signifies an important time)
2. occasion; case
3. chance; opportunity; season
4. the times; the age; the day
5. tense

止まる – とまる – tomaru
1. to stop (moving); to come to a stop
2. to stop (doing, working, being supplied); to come to a halt; to cease; to be stopped; to be suspended
3. to alight; to perch on

冷たい – つめたい – tsumetai
1. cold (to the touch); chilly; icy; freezing
2. (emotionally) cold; coldhearted; unfeeling; indifferent; unfriendly; distant

繋ぐ – つなぐ – tsunagu
1. to connect; to link together
2. to tie; to fasten; to restrain
3. to maintain; to preserve; to keep
4. to transfer (phone call); to put a person through
5. to hedge; to buy or sell forward

U

生まれる – うまれる – umareru
1. to be born

W

訳 – わけ – wake
1. conclusion from reasoning, judgement or calculation based on something read or heard; reason; cause; meaning; circumstances; situation
(sometimes used as the English “wake”, “to be awake”)

笑う – わらう – warau
1. to laugh
2. to smile
3. to sneer; to ridicule (esp. 嗤う)
4. to be dumbfounded; to be flabbergasted

悪い – わるい – warui
1. bad; poor; undesirable
2. poor (quality); inferior; insufficient
3. evil; sinful
4. ugly; not beautiful
5. at fault; to blame; in the wrong
6. bad (at doing something)
7. unprofitable; unbeneficial
8. sorry; (my) bad; unforgivable

私 – わたし – watashi
1. I; me
2. private affairs; personal matter; secrecy (only わたくし)
3. selfishness

Y

焼ける – やける – yakeru
1. to burn; to be roasted; to be heated; to be sunburnt; to fade (in the sun); to glow red (i.e. of the sky at sunset)
2. to be jealous; to be envious

良い – よい – yoi
1. good; excellent; fine; nice; pleasant; agreeable
2. sufficient; enough; ready; prepared
3. profitable (deal, business offer, etc.); beneficial
4. OK; all right; fine; no problem

より – yori
1. than
2. from; out of; since; at; on
3. except; but; other than
4. more (adverb)

夜 – よる – yoru
1. evening; night

ようこそ – youkoso
1. welcome!; nice to see you!

唯一 – ゆいつ – yuitsu
1. only; sole; unique
唯一 – ゆいいつ – yuiitsu
1. only; sole; unique

Z

絶望 – ぜつぼう – zetsubou
1. despair; hopelessness

Grammar

~すぎる
(masu-stem) + すぎる
too much, to bee too much
可愛すぎる -> too cute
簡単すぎる -> too easy
近づきすぎる -> get too close

~ていく
Verb-てform + いく
to go on, to continue, to start